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KTP Crystal

Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTiOPO4 or KTP) is widely used in both commercial and military lasers including laboratory and medical systems, range-finders, lidar, optical communication and industrial systems.


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CASTECH's KTP is featured by:

       •    Large nonlinear optical coefficient;
       •    Wide angular bandwidth and small walk-off angle;
       •    Broad temperature and spectral bandwidth;
       •    High electro-optic coefficient and low dielectric constant;
       •    Large figure of merit;
       •    Nonhydroscopic, chemically and mechanically stable.

CASTECH offers:
      
•    Strict quality control;
     
 •    Large crystal size up to 20x20x40mm3 and maximum length of 60mm;
      
    Quick delivery (2 weeks for polished only, 3 weeks for coated);
      
•   Unbeatable price and quantity discount;
      
•   Technical support;
      
•    AR-coating, mounting and re-polishing service.

 


Table 1. Chemical and Structural Properties

 Crystal Structure

 Orthorhombic, space group Pna21,point group mm2

 Lattice Parameter

 a=6.404Å, b=10.616Å, c=12.814A, Z=8

 Melting Point

 About 1172°C

 Mohs Hardness  

 5

 Density

 3.01 g/cm3

 Thermal Conductivity Coefficient

 13W/m/K

 Thermal Expansion Coefficient

 ax=11x10-6/℃, ay=9x10-6/℃, az=0.6x10-6/℃

 

Table 2. Optical and Nonlinear Optical Properties

 Transparency Range

 350~4500nm

 SHG Phase Matchable Range

 497 ~ 1800nm  (Type II)

 Thermal-optic Coefficients (/°C)

 dnx/dT=1.1X10-5
 dny/dT=1.3X10-5
 dnz/dT=1.6X10-5

 Absorption Coefficients

<0.1%/cm at 1064nm    <1%/cm at 532nm

 For Type II SHG of a Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm

Temperature Acceptance: 24°C·cm 
Spectral Acceptance: 0.56nm·cm
Angular Acceptance: 14.2mrad·cm (φ);55.3mrad·cm (θ)
Walk-off Angle: 0.55°

NLO Coefficients

deff(II)≈(d24 - d15)sin2Φsin2θ - (d15sin2Φ + d24cos2Φ)sinθ

Non-vanished NLO Susceptibilities

d31=6.5 pm/V           d24=7.6 pm/V
d32= 5 pm/V            d15=6.1 pm/V
d33=13.7 pm/V

Electro-optic Coefficients:

                  r13

                  r23

                  r33

                  r51

                  r42

Low frequecy(pm/V)        High frequency(pm/V)

               9.5                               8.8                   

              15.7                             13.8

               36.3                             35.0

                7.3                               6.9

                9.3                               8.8

Dielectric Constantεeff=13

Sellmeier Equations  

    (λ in μm)

nx2=3.0065+0.03901/(λ2-0.04251)-0.01327λ2
ny2=3.0333+0.04154/(λ2-0.04547)-0.01408λ2 
nz2=3.3134+0.05694/(λ2-0.05658)-0.01682λ2

 

Applications for SHG and SFG of Nd: lasers:
       KTP is the most commonly used material for frequency doubling of Nd:YAG and other Nd-doped lasers, particularly when the power density is at a low or medium level. To date, extra- and intra-cavity frequency doubled Nd:lasers using KTP have become a preferred pumping source for visible dye lasers and tunable Ti:Sapphire lasers as well as their amplifiers. They are also useful green sources for many research and industry applications.

    
    More than 80% conversion efficiency and 700mJ green laser were obtained with a 900mJ injection-seeded Q- switch Nd:YAG lasers by using extra-cavity KTP.
    
•    8W green laser was generated from a 15W LD pumped Nd:YVO4 with intra-cavity KTP.
    
    200mW green outputs are generated from 1W LD pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers by using CASTECH's 2x2x5mm3 KTP and 3x3x1mm3 Nd:YVO4 .

 

    KTP is also being used for intracavity mixing of 0.81µm diode and 1.064µm Nd:YAG laser to generate blue light and intracavity SHG of Nd:YAG or Nd:YAP lasers at 1.3µm to produce red light.

 

Fig. 1 Type II KTP SHG in XY Plane                     Fig. 2 Type II KTP SHG in XZ Plane

 

Applications for OPG, OPA and OPO:
       As an efficient OPO crystal pumped by a Nd:laser and its second harmonics, KTP plays an important role for parametric sources for tunable outputs from visible (600nm) to mid-IR (4500nm), as shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. Generally, KTP's OPOs provide stable and continuous pulse outputs (signal and idler) in fs, with 108 Hz repetition rate and a miniwatt average power level. A KTP's OPO that are pumped by a 1064nm Nd:YAG laser has generated as high as above 66% efficiency for degenerately converting to 2120nm.

 

 

              

Fig. 3  OPO pumped at 532 in X-Z plane            Fig. 4  OPO pumped at 532 in X-Y plane

 

       The novel developed application is the non-critical phase matched (NCPM) KTP's OPO/OPA. As shown in Fig.5, for pumping wavelength range from 0.7µm to 1µm, the output can cover from 1.04µm to 1.45µm (signal) and from 2.15µm to 3.2µm (idler). More than 45% conversion efficiency was obtained with narrow output bandwidth and good beam quality.

 

 Fig. 5 Type II  NCPM OPO

 

Applications for E-O Devices:

      In addition to unique NLO features, KTP also has promising E-O and dielectric properties that are comparable to LiNbO3. These advantaged properties make KTP extremely useful to various E-O devices. Table 3 is a comparison of KTP with other E-O modulator materials commonly used:

 

Table 3. Electro-Optic Modulator Materials

  Material

Phase

Amplitude

  ε

N

R(pm/V)

k(10-6/°C)

N7r2/ε(pm/V)2r(pm/V)k(10-6/°C)n7r2/ε(pm/V)2

KTP

LiNbO3

KD*P

LiIO3

15.42

27.9

48.0

5.9

1.80

2.20

1.47

1.74

35.0

8.8

24.0

6.4

31

82

9

24

6130

7410

178

335

27.0

20.1

24.0

1.2

11.7

42

8

15

3650

3500

178

124

      From Table 3, clearly, KTP is expected to replace LiNbO3 crystal in the considerable volume application of E-O modulators, when other merits of KTP are combined into account, such as high damage threshold, wide optical bandwidth (>15GHZ), thermal and mechanical stability, and low loss, etc.

Applications for Optical Waveguides:
      Based on the ion-exchange process on KTP substrate, low loss optical waveguides developed for KTP have created novel applications in integrated optics. Table 4 gives a comparison of KTP with other optical waveguide materials. Recently, a type II SHG conversion efficiency of 20%/W/cm2 was achieved by the balanced phase matching, in which the phase mismatch from one section was balanced against a phase mismatch in the opposite sign from the second. Furthermore, segmented KTP waveguides have been applied to the type I quasi-phase-matchable SHG of a tunable Ti:Sapphire laser in the range of 760-960mm, and directly doubled diode lasers for the 400-430nm outputs.


Table 4. Electro-Optic Waveguide Materials

Material

r (pm/V)

N

εeff(ε11ε33)1/2

n3r/εeff (pm/V)

KTP

LiNbO3

KNbO3

BNN

BN

GaAs

BaTiO3

35

29

25

56

56-1340

1.2

28

1.86

2.20

2.17

2.22

2.22

3.6

2.36

13

37

30

86

119-3400

14

373

17.3

8.3

9.2

7.1

5.1-0.14

4.0

1.0

 

CASTECH provides the following AR-coatings:
       •    Dual Band AR-coating (DBAR) of KTP for SHG of 1064nm. low reflectance (R<0.2% at 1064nm and R<0.5% at="" high="" damage="" threshold="">300MW/cm2 at both wavelengths); long durability.

       •    Broad Band AR-coating (BBAR) of KTP for OPO applications.
       •    High reflectivity coating: HR1064nm&HT532nm, R>99.8%@1064nm, T>90%@532nm.
       •    Other coatings are available upon request.


CASTECH's Warranty on KTP Specifications:
        •    Dimension tolerance:(W±0.1mm)x(H±0.1mm)x(L+0.5/-0.1mm)(L≥2.5mm)
                                                   (W±0.1mm)x(H±0.1mm)x(L+0.1/-0.1mm) (L<2.5mm)
        
    Clear aperture: central 90% of the diameter
      
  •    No visible scattering paths or centers when inspected by a 50mW green laser
       
    Flatness: less than λ/8 @ 633nm
       
    Transmitting wavefront distortion: less than λ/8 @ 633nm
       
    Chamfer: ≤0.2mm@45°
       
    Chip:≤0.1mm
        
    Scratch/Dig code: better than 10/ 5(MIL-PRF-13830B)
       
    Parallelism: better than 20 arc seconds
       
    Perpendicularity: ≤5 arc minutes
       
    Angle tolerance: △θ≤0.25°, △ф≤0.25°
       
    Damage threshold [GW/cm2 ]:>0.5 for 1064nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10HZ (AR-coated)
                                                                  >0.3 for 532nm, TEM00, 10ns, 10HZ (AR-coated)

 

 

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